6月8日 9：00 11：30 文科综合/理科综合；15：0017：00 外语，有外语听力测试内容应安排外语笔试考试开始前进行。
Directions:Suppose you are asked to give advice on whether to major in science or humanities at college， write an essay to state your opinion. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
After becoming president of Purdue University in 2013, Mitch Daniels asked the faculty to prove that their students have actually achieved one of higher education’s most important goals: critical thinking skills. Two years before, a nationwide study of college graduates had shown that more than a third had made no __26__ gains in such mental abilities during their school years. Mr. Daniels needed to __27__ the high cost of attending Purdue to its students and their families. After all, the percentage of Americans who say a college degree is “very important” has fallen __28__ in the last 5-6 years.
Despite the success of the experiment, the actual results are worrisome, and mostly __32__ earlier studies. The organizers of the experiment concluded that far fewer students were achieving at high levels on critical thinking than they were doing for written communication or quantitative literacy. And that conclusion is based only on students nearing graduation.
American universities, despite their global __33__ for excellence in teaching, have only begun to demonstrate what they can produce in real-world learning. Knowledge-based degrees are still important, but employers are __34__ advanced thinking skills from college graduates. If the intellectual worth of a college degree can be __35__ measured, more people will seek higher education—and come out better thinkers.
A) Fossil fuel prices are likely to stay “low for long”. Notwithstanding important recent progress in developing renewable fuel sources, low fossil fuel prices could discourage further innovation in, and adoption of, cleaner energy technologies. The result would be higher emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
B) Policymakers should not allow low energy prices to derail the clean energy transition. Action to restore appropriate price incentives, notably through corrective carbon pricing, is urgently needed to lower the risk of irreversible and potentially devastating effects of climate change. That approach also offers fiscal benefits.
E) Natural gas and coal—also fossil fuels—have similarly seen price declines that look to be long-lived. Coal and natural gas are mainly used for electricity generation, whereas oil is used mostly to power transportation, yet the prices of all these energy sources are linked. The North American shale gas boom has resulted in record low prices there. The recent discovery of the giant Zohr gas field off the Egyptian coast will eventually have impact on pricing in the Mediterranean region and Europe, and there is significant development potential in many other places, notably Argentina. Coal prices also are low, owing to over-supply and the scaling-down of demand, especially from China, which bums half of the world’s coal.
I) The current low fossil fuel price environment will thus certainly delay the energy transition from fossil fuel to clean energy sources. Unless renewables become cheap enough that substantial carbon deposits are left underground for a very long time, if not forever, the planet will likely be exposed to potentially catastrophic climate risks.
O) The hope is that the success of COP 21 opens the door to future international agreement on carbon prices. Agreement on an international carbon-price floor would be a good starting point in that process. Failure to address comprehensively the problem of greenhouse gas emissions, however, exposes all generations, present and future, to incalculable risks.
41.If fossil fuel prices remain low for a long time, it may lead to higher emissions of greenhouse gases.
44.Greenhouse gas emissions, if not properly dealt with, will pose endless risks for mankind.
Open data sharers are still in the minority in many fields. Although many researchers broadly agree that public access to raw data would accelerate science, most are reluctant to post the results of their own labors online.
Some communities have agreed to share online—geneticists, for example, post DNA sequences at the GenBank repository (库) , and astronomers are accustomed to accessing images of galaxies and stars from, say, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a telescope that has observed some 500 million objects—but these remain the exception, not the rule. Historically, scientists have objected to sharing for many reasons: it is a lot of work; until recently, good databases did not exist; grant funders were not pushing for sharing; it has been difficult to agree on standards for formatting data; and there is no agreed way to assign credit for data.
But the barriers are disappearing, in part because journals and funding agencies worldwide are encouraging scientists to make their data public. Last year, the Royal Society in London said in its report that scientists need to “shift away from a research culture where data is viewed as a private preserve”. Funding agencies note that data paid for with public money should be public information, and the scientific community is recognizing that data can now be shared digitally in ways that were not possible before. To match the growing demand, services are springing up to make it easier to publish research products online and enable other researchers to discover and cite them.
Even people whose data are less popular can benefit. By making the effort to organize and label files so others can understand them, scientists become more organized and better disciplined themselves, thus avoiding confusion later on.
48. According to the passage, what might hinder open data sharing?
Macy’s reported its sales plunged 5.2% in November and December at stores open more than a year, a disappointing holiday season performance that capped a difficult year for a department store chain facing wide-ranging challenges. Its flagship stores in major U.S. cities depend heavily on international tourist spending, which shrank at many retailers due to a strong dollar. Meanwhile, Macy’s has simply struggled to lure consumers who are more interested in spending on travel or dining out than on new clothes or accessories.
The company blamed much of the poor performance in November and December on unseasonably warm weather. “About 80% of our company’s year-over-year declines in comparable sales can be attributed to shortfalls () in cold-weather goods,” said chief executive Teny Lundgren in a press release. This prompted the company to cut its forecasts for the full fourth quarter.
However, it’s clear that Macy’s believes its troubles run deeper than a temporary aberration (偏离) off the thermometer. The retail giant said the poor financial performance this year has pushed it to begin implementing $400 million in cost-cutting measures. The company pledged to cut 600 back-office positions, though some 150 workers in those roles would be reassigned to other jobs. It also plans to offer “voluntary separation” packages to 165 senior executives. It will slash staffing at its fleet of 770 stores, a move affecting some 3,000 employees.
The retailer also announced the locations of 36 stores it will close in early 2016. The company had previously announced the planned closures, but had not said which locations would be affected. None of the chain’s stores in the Washington metropolitan area are to be closed.
Macy’s has been moving aggressively to try to remake itself for a new era of shopping. It has plans to open more locations of Macy’s Backstage, a newly-developed off-price concept which might help it better compete with ambitious T. J. Maxx. It’s also pushing ahead in 2016 with an expansion of Bluemercury, the beauty chain it bought last year. At a time when young beauty shoppers are often turning to Sephora or Ulta instead of department store beauty counters, Macy’s hopes Bluemercury will help strengthen its position in the category.
One relative bright spot for Macy’s during the holiday season was the online channel, where it rang up “double-digit” increases in sales and a 25% increase in the number of orders it filled. That relative strength would be consistent with what was seen in the wilder retail industry during the early part of the holiday season. While Thanksgiving, Black Friday and Cyber Monday all saw record spending online, in-store sales plunged over the holiday weekend.
53. In order to cut costs, Macy’s decided to ________.
Directions： For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
To major in science or humanities, that is a question for college students to answer. From my perspective, it is advisable for them to choose humanities as their major.
In conclusion, the humanities allow for a different perspective to see the world and emphasize human interaction, which is conducive to the sound growth of students. Therefore, it is wise for them to major in humanities at college.
And in today’s program, we’re looking at the results of two recently published surveys, which both deal with the same topic—happiness at work.
John, tell us about the first survey.
The most important factor for the majority of the people interviewed was having friendly, supportive colleagues.
In fact, 73% of people interviewed put their relationship with colleagues as the key factor contributing to happiness at work, which is a very high percentage.
The two least important factors were having one’s achievements recognized, and rather surprisingly, earning a competitive salary.
M: Yes. For example, 25% of the working people interviewed described themselves as ‘very happy’ at work.
However, 20% of employees described themselves as being unhappy.
M: It is, isn’t it?
First of all, small is beautiful: people definitely prefer working for smaller organizations or companies with less than 100 staff.
We also find out that, generally speaking, women were happier in their work than men.
W: Yes, we are, aren’t we?
M: And workers on part-time contracts, who only work 4 or 5 hours a day, are happier than those who work full-time.
M: Yes, perhaps not surprisingly, the higher people go in a company, the happier they are.
W: Mr. De Keyzer, I’m a great lover of your book Moments Before the Flood.
M: In 2006, when the concert hall of the city of Bruges asked me to take some pictures for a catalogue for a new concert season around the theme of water, I found myself working along the Belgian coastline.
As there had been numerous alarming articles in the press about a climate catastrophe waiting to happen,
I started looking at the sea and the beach very differently, a place where I spent so many perfect days as a child.
W: You wrote in the book: “I don’t want to photograph the disaster, I want to photograph the disaster waiting to happen.”
My idea was to photograph this beautiful and very unique coastline, rich in history, before it’s too late—as a last witness.
In the images, you see all kinds of possible defense constructions to hold back the Romans, Germans, Vikings, and now nature as enemy number one.
For example, there is the image of the bridge into the sea taken at the Normandy D-Day landing site.
W: Thank you, Mr. De Keyzer.
She replied: “I don’t want to look too inexperienced, I don’t want them to suspect this is my first trial.”
Consequently, before going into any stressful situation, focus only on what you want to have happen.
To her, it meant moving confidently around the court room, using convincing body language and projecting her voice, so it could be heard from the judge’s bench to the back door.
A few weeks after this positive stress rehearsal, the young lawyer did win.
Most Americans don’t eat enough fruits, vegetables or whole grains.
Kristi King, a diet specialist at Texas Children’s Hospital, finds it hard to get teenage patients’ attention about healthy eating.
The new finding is based on a study of 44,000 women.
It turns out that those who consumed the highest levels of fiber during adolescents had a lower risk of developing breast cancer, compared to women who ate the least fiber.
This important study demonstrates that the more fiber you eat during your high school years, the lower your risk is in developing breast cancer in later life.
The finding points to long-standing evidence that fiber may reduce circulating female hormone levels, which could explain the reduced risk.
The bottom line here is the more fiber you eat, perhaps, a lower level of hormone in your body, and therefore, a lower lifetime risk of developing breast cancer.
Question 14: What do we learn about the survey of the 44,000 women?
Well, my current research is really about consumer behavior.
So recently, I’ve looked at young people’s drinking and it’s obviously a major concern to Government at the moment.